Advertisement

Elevated plasma fibrinogen caused by inadequate α-linolenic acid intake can be reduced by replacing fat with canola-type rapeseed oil

      Abstract

      The effects of canola-type rapeseed oil (RSO) on serum lipids, plasma fibrinogen, lipid oxidation and fatty acids were studied in three groups of subjects, two of which had not been consuming fish in their habitual diets. Forty-two volunteers (35 women, 7 men, 16–62 years) replaced fat with RSO for 6 weeks in a parallel design. The average cholesterol and fibrinogen concentrations were 5.0 mmol/l and 2.6 g/l, respectively. The intake of α-linolenic acid (α-LLA) was doubled. Efficient competitive inhibition by α-LLA was seen as a decrease in long-chain (LC) n-6 PUFA at 3 weeks. Elevated fibrinogen (2.6–3.9 g/l) decreased by 0.95 g/l at 6 weeks. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in plasma phospholipids increased at low fibrinogen levels only. The associations and changes in plasma C18 and LC PUFA followed the competitive and metabolic principles of the body, and especially in the case of n-3 PUFA according to the recycling pathway.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Lands W.E.M.
        Diets could prevent many diseases.
        Lipids. 2003; 38: 317-321
        • Crawford M.A.
        Background to essential fatty acids and their prostanoid derivatives.
        Br. Med. Bull. 1983; 39: 210-213
        • Leaf A.
        • Kang J.X.
        ω3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.
        in: Simopoulos A.P. The Return of ω3 Fatty Acids into the Food Supply. Karger, Basel1998: 24-37
        • Lands W.E.M.
        Primary prevention in cardiovascular disease: moving out of the shadows of the truth about death.
        Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2003; 13: 154-164
        • Lands B.
        A critique of paradoxes in current advice on dietary lipids.
        Prog. Lipid Res. 2008; 47: 77-106
        • Marckmann P.
        • Grønbæk M.
        Fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality. A systematic review of prospective cohort studies.
        Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999; 53: 585-590
        • Erkkilä A.T.
        • Lehto S.
        • Pyörälä K.
        • Uusitupa M.U.
        n-3 Fatty acids and 5-y risk of death and cardiovascular disease events in patients with coronary artery disease.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2003; 78: 65-71
        • Burr M.L.
        • Ashfield-Watt P.A.L.
        • Dunstan F.D.J.
        • Fehily A.M.
        • Breay P.
        • Ashton T.
        • P.C
        • et al.
        Lack of benefit of dietary advice to men with angina: results of a controlled trial.
        Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2003; 57: 193-200
        • Louheranta A.M.
        • Porkkala-Sarataho E.K.
        • Nyyssönen M.K.
        • Salonen R.M.
        • Salonen J.T
        Linoleic acid intake and susceptibility of very-low-density and low density lipoproteins to oxidation in men.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1996; 63: 698-703
        • Finnegan Y.E.
        • Minihane A.M.
        • Leigh-Firbank E.C.
        • Key S.
        • Meijer G.W.
        • Muggli R.
        • et al.
        Plant- and marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have differential effects on fasting and postprandial blood lipid concentrations and on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2003; 77: 783-795
        • Pedersen H.
        • Petersen M.
        • Major-Pedersen A.
        • Jensen T.
        • Nielsen N.S.
        • Lauridsen S.T.
        • et al.
        Influence of fish oil supplementation on in vivo and in vitro oxidation resistance of low-density lipoprotein in type 2 diabetes.
        Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2003; 57: 713-720
        • Lefevre M.
        • Kris-Etherton P.M.
        • Zhao G.
        • Tracy R.P.
        Dietary fatty acids, hemostasis, and cardiovascular disease risk.
        J. Am. Dietetic Assoc. 2004; 104: 410-419
        • Eckel R.H.
        • Grundy S.M.
        • Zimmet P.Z.
        The metabolic syndrome.
        Lancet. 2005; 365: 1415-1428
        • Danesh J.
        The Fibrinogen Studies Collaboration. Plasma fibrinogen level and the risk of major cardiovascular diseases and nonvascular mortality. An individual participant meta-analysis.
        JAMA. 2005; 294: 1799-1809
        • Kofoed S.C.
        • Wittrup H.H.
        • Sillesen H.
        • Nordestgaard B.G.
        Fibrinogen predicts ischaemic stroke and advanced atherosclerosis but not echolucent, rupture-prone carotid plaques, The Copenhagen City Heart Study.
        Eur. Heart J. 2003; 24: 567-576
        • Klein R.L.
        • Hunter S.J.
        • Jenkins A.J.
        • Zheng D.
        • Semler A.J.
        • Clore J.
        • et al.
        Fibrinogen is a marker for nephropathy and peripheral vascular disease in type 1 diabetes.
        Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 1439-1448
        • van Oijen M.
        • Witteman J.C.
        • Hofman A.
        • Koudstal P.J.
        • Breteler M.M.B.
        Fibrinogen is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia.
        Stroke. 2005; 36: 2637-2641
        • Vartiainen E.
        • Puska P.
        • Pekkanen J.
        • Tuomilehto J.
        • Jousilahti P.
        Changes in risk factors explain changes in mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Finland.
        Br. Med. J. 1994; 309: 23-27
        • Karvonen M.
        • Viik-Kajander M.
        • Moltchanova E.
        • Libman I.
        • LaPorte R.
        • Tuomilehto J.
        Incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide.
        Diabetes Care. 2000; 23: 1516-1526
        • Parillo M.
        • Riccardi G.
        Diet composition and the risk of type 2 diabetes: epidemiological and clinical evidence.
        Br. J. Nutr. 2004; 92: 7-19
        • Seppänen-Laakso T.
        • Vanhanen H.
        • Laakso I.
        • Kohtamäki H.
        • Viikari J.
        Replacement of butter on bread by rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil-containing margarine. Effects on plasma fatty acid composition and serum lipids.
        Br. J. Nutr. 1992; 68: 639-654
        • Seppänen-Laakso T.
        • Vanhanen H.
        • Laakso I.
        • Kohtamäki H.
        • Viikari J.
        Replacement of margarine on bread by rapeseed and olive oils. Effects on plasma fatty acid composition and serum lipids.
        Ann. Nutr. Metab. 1993; 37: 161-174
        • Seppänen-Laakso T.
        • Laakso I.
        • Backman P.
        • Vanhanen H.
        • Viikari J.
        Elaidic and trans-vaccenic acids in plasma phospholipids as indicators of dietary intake of 18:1 trans-fatty acids.
        J. Chromatogr. B. 1996; 687: 371-378
        • Seppänen-Laakso T.
        • Laakso I.
        • Hiltunen R.
        Analysis of fatty acids by gas chromatography, and its relevance to research on health and nutrition.
        Anal. Chim. Acta. 2002; 465: 39-62
        • Rastas M.
        • Seppänen R.
        • Knuts L.-R.
        • Karvetti R.-L.
        • Varo P.
        Nutrient composition of foods. Publications of the Social Insurance Institution, Finland1989
        • Friedewald W.T.
        • Levy R.I.
        • Fredrickson D.S.
        Estimation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge.
        Clin. Chem. 1972; 18: 499-502
        • Aejmelaeus R.
        • Metsä-Ketelä T.
        • Laippala P.
        • Solakivi T.
        • Alho H.
        Ubiquinol-10 and total peroxyl radical trapping capacity of LDL lipoproteins during aging: the effects of Q-10 supplementation.
        Mol. Aspects Med. 1997; 18: S113-S120
        • Leinonen J.S.
        • Rantalaiho V.
        • Solakivi T.
        • Koivula T.
        • Wirta O.
        • Pasternack A.
        • et al.
        Susceptibility of LDL to oxidation is not associated with the presence of coronary heart disease or renal dysfunction in NIDDM patients.
        Clin. Chim. Acta. 1998; 275: 163-174
        • Pietinen P.
        • Vartiainen E.
        • Seppänen R.
        • Aro A.
        • Puska P.
        Changes in diet in Finland from 1972 to 1992: impact on coronary heart disease risk.
        Prev. Med. 1996; 25: 243-250
        • Lands W.E.M.
        Commentary on the workshop statement.
        Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essent. Fatty Acids. 2000; 63: 125-126
        • Holman R.T.
        • Mohrhauer H.
        A hypothesis involving competitive inhibitions in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
        Acta Chem. Scand. 1963; 17: S84-S90
        • Lands W.E.M.
        • Libelt B.
        • Morris A.
        • Kramer N.C.
        • Prewitt T.E.
        • Bowen P.
        • et al.
        Maintenance of lower proportions of (n-6) eicosanoid precursors in phospholipids of human plasma in response to added dietary (n-3) fatty acids.
        Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1992; 1180: 147-162
        • Mohrhauer H.
        • Holman R.T.
        The effect of dose level of essential fatty acids upon fatty acid composition of the rat liver.
        J. Lipid Res. 1963; 4: 151-159
        • Mohrhauer H.
        • Holman R.T.
        Effect of linolenic acid upon the metabolism of linoleic acid.
        J. Nutr. 1963; 81: 67-74
        • Holman R.T.
        The slow discovery of the importance of ω3 essential fatty acids in human health.
        J. Nutr. 1998; 128: 427S-433S
        • Nakamura M.T.
        • Cho H.P.
        • Xu J.
        • Tang Z.
        • Clarke S.D.
        Metabolism and functions of highly unsaturated fatty acids: an update.
        Lipids. 2001; 36: 961-964
        • Seppänen-Laakso T.
        • Laakso I.
        • Vanhanen H.
        • Kiviranta K.
        • Lehtimäki T.
        • Hiltunen R.
        Major human plasma lipid classes determined by quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography, their variation and associations with phospholipid fatty acids.
        J. Chromatogr. B. 2001; 754: 437-445
        • Emken E.A.
        • Adlof R.O.
        • Rohwedder W.K.
        R.M. Gulley, Comparison of linolenic and linoleic acid metabolism in man: Influence of dietary linoleic acid.
        in: Sinclair A. Gibson R. Essential Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids. AOCS, Champaign, IL1992: 23-25
        • Rahm J.J.
        • Holman R.T.
        Effect of linoleic acid upon the metabolism of linolenic acid.
        J. Nutr. 1964; 84: 15-19
        • Bemelmans W.J.E.
        • Broer J.
        • Feskens E.J.M.
        • Smit A.J.
        • Muskiet F.A.J.
        • Lefrandt J.D.
        • et al.
        Effect of an increased intake of α-linolenic acid and group nutritional education on cardiovascular risk factors: the Mediterranean Alpha-linolenic Enriched Groningen Dietary Intervention (MARGARIN) study.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2002; 75: 221-227
        • Finnegan Y.E.
        • Howarth D.
        • Minihane A.M.
        • Kew S.
        • Miller G.J.
        • Calder P.C.
        • et al.
        Plant and marine derived (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids do not affect blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in moderately hyperlipidemic humans.
        J. Nutr. 2003; 133: 2210-2213
        • Sanders T.A.B.
        • Lewis F.
        • Slaughter S.
        • Griffin B.A.
        • Griffin M.
        • Davies I.
        • et al.
        Effect of varying the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids by increasing the dietary intake of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, or both on fibrinogen and clotting factors VII and XII in persons aged 45-70 y: the OPTILIPID Study.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006; 84: 513-522
        • Sprecher H.
        Interconversions between 20- and 22-carbon n-3 and n-6 fatty acids via 4-desaturase independent pathways.
        in: Sinclair A. Gibson R. Essential Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids. AOCS, Champaign, IL1992: 18-22
        • Sprecher H.
        Metabolism of highly unsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.
        Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2000; 1486: 219-231
        • Mozaffarian D.
        • Ascherio A.
        • Hu F.B.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Willett W.C.
        • Siscovick D.S.
        • et al.
        Interplay between different polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in men.
        Circulation. 2005; 111: 157-164
        • Harris J.I.
        • Hibbeln J.R.
        • Mackey R.H.
        • Muldoon M.F.
        Statin treatment alters serum n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in hypercholesterolemic patients.
        Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essent. Fatty Acids. 2004; 71: 263-269
        • Lind L.
        Circulating markers of inflammation and atherosclerosis.
        Atherosclerosis. 2003; 169: 203-214
        • Laaksonen D.E.
        • Niskanen L.
        • Nyyssönen K.
        • Punnonen K.
        • Tuomainen T.-P.
        • Valkonen V.-P.
        • et al.
        C-reactive protein and the development of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in middle-aged men.
        Diabetologia. 2004; 47: 1403-1410
        • Renaud S.
        • Godsey F.
        • Dumont E.
        • Thevenon C.
        • Ortchanian E.
        • Martin J.L.
        Influence of long-term diet modification on platelet function and composition in Moselle farmers.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1986; 43: 136-150
        • Renaud S.
        • Morazain R.
        • Godsey F.
        • Dumont E.
        • Thevenon C.
        • Martin J.L.
        • et al.
        Nutrients, platelet function and composition in nine groups of French and British farmers.
        Atherosclerosis. 1986; 60: 37-48
        • De Lorgeril M.
        • Renaud S.
        • Mamelle N.
        • Salen P.
        • Martin J.-L.
        • Monjaud I.
        • et al.
        Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.
        Lancet. 1994; 343: 1454-1459
        • Singh R.B.
        • Niaz M.A.
        • Sharma J.P.
        • Kumar R.
        • Rastogi V.
        • Moshiri M.
        Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil and mustard oil in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction: the Indian experiment of infarct survival-4.
        Cardiovasc. Drugs Ther. 1997; 11: 485-491
        • Stanley J.C.
        • Elsom R.L.
        • Calder P.C.
        • Griffin B.A.
        • Harris W.S.
        • Jebb S.A.
        • et al.
        UK Food Standards Agency Workshop Report: the effect of the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on cardiovascular health.
        Br. J. Nutr. 2007; 98: 1305-1310
        • Wang C.
        • Harris W.S.
        • Chung M.
        • Lichtenstein A.H.
        • Balk E.M.
        • Kupelnick B.
        • et al.
        n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not α-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006; 84: 5-17
        • Gurr M.I.
        Dietary lipids and coronary heart disease: old evidence, new perspective.
        Prog. Lipid Res. 1992; 31: 195-243
        • Miettinen T.A.
        • Naukkarinen V.
        • Huttunen J.K.
        • Mattila S.
        • Kumlin T.
        Fatty acid composition of serum lipids predicts myocardial infarction.
        Br. Med. J. 1982; 285: 993-996
      1. International Consensus Statement, Olive Oil and the Mediterranean Diet: Implications for Health in Europe, 16 Authors, European Commission Meeting, Rome, 1997.

        • Simopoulos A.P.
        Overview of evolutionary aspects of ω3 fatty acids in the diet.
        in: Simopoulos A.P. The Return of ω3 Fatty Acids into the Food Supply. Karger, Basel1998: 1-11
        • Freese R.
        • Mutanen M.
        α-Linolenic acid and marine long-chain n-3 fatty acids differ only slightly in their effects on hemostatic factors in healthy subjects.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 66: 591-598
        • Johnsson G.H.
        • Keast D.R.
        • Kris-Etherton P.M.
        Dietary modelling shows that the substitution of Canola oil for fats commonly used in the United States would increase compliance with dietary recommendations for fatty acids.
        J. Am. Dietetic Assoc. 2007; 107: 1726-1734