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Snythetic pathways of gallbladder mucosal prostanoids: the role of cyclooxygenase-1 and 2

  • W.E. Longo
    Affiliations
    Department of Surgery, Theodore Cooper Surgical Research Institute, St Louis University School of Medicine and Health Sciences Center, 3635 Vista Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110-0250, USA
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  • N. Panesar
    Affiliations
    Department of Surgery, Theodore Cooper Surgical Research Institute, St Louis University School of Medicine and Health Sciences Center, 3635 Vista Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110-0250, USA
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  • J.E. Mazuski
    Affiliations
    Department of Surgery, Theodore Cooper Surgical Research Institute, St Louis University School of Medicine and Health Sciences Center, 3635 Vista Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110-0250, USA
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  • D. Kaminski
    Affiliations
    Department of Surgery, Theodore Cooper Surgical Research Institute, St Louis University School of Medicine and Health Sciences Center, 3635 Vista Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110-0250, USA
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      Abstract

      Acute cholecystitis is associated with increased gallbladder prostanoid formation and the inflammatory changes and prostanoid increases can be inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Recent information indicates that prostanoids are produced by two cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, COX-1 and COX-2. The purpose of this study was to determine the COX enzymatic pathway in gallbladder mucosal cells involved in the production of prostanoids stimulated by inflammatory agents. Human gallbladder mucosal cells were isolated from cholecystectomy specimens and maintained in cell culture and studied in comparison with cells from a well differentiated gallbladder mucosal carcinoma cell line. COX enzymes were evaluated by Western immunoblotting and prostanoids were measured by ELISA. Unstimulated and stimulated cells were exposed to specific COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors. In both normal and transformed cells constitutive COX-1 was evident and in gallbladder cancer cells lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) induced the formation of constitutive COX-1 enzyme. While not detected in unstimulated normal mucosal cells and cancer cells, COX-2 protein was induced by both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPC. Unstimulated gallbladder mucosal cells and cancer cells produced prostaglandin E2(PGE2) and prostacyclin (6-keto prostaglandin F, 6-keto PGF) continuously. In freshly isolated normal gallbladder mucosal cells, continuously produced 6 keto PGFwas inhibited by both COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors while PGE2levels were not affected. Both LPS and LPC stimulated PGE2and 6 keto PGFformation were blocked by COX-2 inhibitors in freshly isolated, normal human gallbladder mucosal cells and in the gallbladder cancer cells. The prostanoid response of gallbladder cells stimulated by proinflammatory agents is inhibited by COX-2 inhibitors suggesting that these agents may be effective in treating the pain and inflammation of gallbladder disease.
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